Diplomacy: Theory and Practice, 5th ed.  –  Online updating pages

Chapter 5: Packaging Agreements

pp. 74-5, both languages, or more: Creating ‘equally authentic’ treaties is a costly as well as tricky business, especially for the EU, which now has 24  official languages. In 2013 it was estimated that its annual budget for translating was about Euros 300m a year. The pseudonymous article in the respected British weekly, The Economist, from which I drew this figure, also makes the case for replacing French as a working language of the UN with Spanish (‘Johnson’, see Further reading below).

p.76, annexes to agreements: Almost 90 per cent of the highly controversial, 159-page agreement on Iran’s nuclear programme (‘Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action’) signed at Vienna on 14 July 2015 consisted of annexes (see Further reading).

p. 78, ‘separate but related’ agreements: On reflection, I think I might well have exaggerated the extent to which it is politically expedient to obscure any ‘linkage’ on which an agreement is based, even though I did say that this is particularly true of a certain kind of linkage, I have been led to this conclusion by a persuasive article by Giancarlo Spagnolo (see Further reading below).

Further reading: additions and links

Europa, EU Treaties

FCO Treaty Section, UK Treaties

Johnson, ‘Languages of diplomacy: towards a fairer distribution’, The Economist, 2 April 2013

Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, 14 July 2015

OAS, Inter-American Treaties

Spagnolo, Giancarlo, ‘Issue linkage, delegation, and international policy cooperation‘, 16 March 1999

United Nations Treaty Collection: Treaty Handbook, rev. ed (UN, 2012)

[not to be confused with the Treaty Reference Guide]

U.S. Department of State, Foreign Affairs Manual, 11FAM730

U.S. Department of State, Treaties in Force